General Anthony Wayne
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General Anthony Wayne

In 1792, President George Washington appointed Wayne as the commander of the United States Army of the Northwest, currently serving in the Northwest Territory. The major purpose of this army was to defend American settlers from Indian attack. Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair had both been defeated at the hands of the Native Americans in the previous few years, and Washington hoped that Wayne would prove to be more successful. To help defend the frontier, Wayne ordered the construction of several forts, including Fort Recovery, Fort Defiance, and Fort Greene Ville. Seeing the build-up of American forces in the Northwest Territory, the local Indians became quite concerned. To ease their fears, the natives' British allies constructed Fort Miamis on the Maumee River. During 1794, Wayne moved against the Indians, who were commanded by Blue Jacket. On August 20, 1794, the two forces met at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, so named because the Indians used trees knocked down by a tornado for cover. Wayne's men quickly drove the Indians from the battlefield. Wayne succeeded primarily because of his well-trained troops. Harmar and St. Clair's earlier expeditions had failed due to a heavy reliance on unskilled soldiers.

The Americans had thirty-three men killed and roughly one hundred wounded, while the Indians lost approximately twice that number. Blue Jacket's followers retreated to Fort Miamis, hoping the British would provide them with protection and assistance against Wayne's army. The English refused. Wayne followed the natives to the fort. Upon his arrival, Wayne ordered the British to evacuate the Northwest Territory. The English commander refused. Wayne decided to withdraw to Fort Greene Ville.

For the next year, Wayne stayed at Fort Greene Ville, negotiating a treaty with the Indians. The natives realized that they were at a serious disadvantage with the Americans, especially because of England's refusal to support the Indians. On August 3, 1795, the Treaty of Greeneville was signed. Representatives from the Miami Indians, the Wyandot Indians, the Shawnee Indians, the Delaware Indians, and several other tribes agreed to move to the northwestern part of what is present-day Ohio. In doing so, they left behind their lands south and east of the agreed upon boundary. Not all Indians concurred with the treaty, and bloodshed continued in the region for the next twenty years as Americans and Indians struggled for control.